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Q.There was the Kigali Amendment. Will HFCs be banned under the Montreal Protocol?

A.HFCs will not be banned under the Montreal Protocol.

top porn,We can continue to use HFCs, though it is scheduled to phase down total GWP of HFC (weight of HFC in Kg x GWP value).

Learn more about the Montreal Protocol and the Kigali Amendment,fakeagent uk

Q.Does the Montreal Protocol require reducing the amounts of HFCs?

A.HFCs will be phased down based on total GWP of HFC in CO2 equivalent (weight of HFC in Kg x GWP value), not based on its amounts (kg).

Q.Is CO2 emission amount restricted under the Montreal Protocol?

A.No, the Montreal Protocol will phase down total GWP of HFC (weight of HFC in Kg x GWP value).

Q.In order to achieve the Kigali Amendment, will it work to conduct just conversion to low GWP refrigerants?

A.The Kigali Amendment emphasizes not only conversion to low GWP refrigerants but also energy efficiency and safety together.

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Index,sex of bus

  • Toxicity and Flammability classification: International Standard ISO 817 and US standard ASHRAE34 classify the toxicity of refrigerant into 2 categories of Class A (Lower toxicity) and Class B (Higher toxicity), and the flammability of refrigerants into 4 categories as follows: Class 1 (No flame propagation), Class 2L (Lower flammability), Class 2 (Flammable) and Class 3 (Higher flammability).
  • GWP (Global Warming Potential): A value indicating the degree of contribution to global warming of various GHGs based on CO2 as a standard.
  • Composition: There are two types of refrigerants, single-component refrigerant which has only one molecule and refrigerant blends which are made up of two or more single-component refrigerants.
  • Saturated Temperature (boiling point), Saturated Pressure: Appropriate temperature and pressure rage vary based on appilcation and usage.
  Refrigerant
number
Class *1 GWP*2 Nominal
composition
(mass fraction %) *1
Saturated
Temperature
(°C)*3
Saturated
pressure
(MPa)25°C *3
Toxicity Flammability
HFC R-22 A 1 1810 R-22 (100) -40.8 1.04
R-404A A 1 3922 R-125/143a/134a
(44.0/52.0/4.0)
(BP)-46.2
(DP)-45.5
(Liquid)1.25
(Vapor)1.24
R-410A A 1 2088 R-32/125
(50.0/50.0)
(BP)-51.4
(DP)-51.4
(Liquid)1.66
(Vapor)1.65
R-407C A 1 1774 R-32/125/134a
(23.0/25.0/52.0)
(BP)-43.6
(DP)-36.6
(Liquid)1.19
(Vapor)1.02
R-407H A 1 1495 R-32/125/134a
(32.5/15.0/52.5)
(BP)-44.6
(DP)-37.6
(Liquid)1.24
(Vapor)1.06
R-134a A 1 1430 R-134a (100) -26.1 0.67
R-32 A 2L 675 R-32 (100) -51.7 1.69
HFOs /
HFO blend
R-513A A 1 573 R-1234yf/134a
(56.0/44.0)
-29.6 0.71
R-1233zd(E) A 1 1 R-1233zd (100) 18.3 0.13
R-1234ze(E) A 2L <1 R-1234ze (100) -19.0 0.50
R-1234yf A 2L <1 R-1234yf (100) -29.5 0.68
Natural
Refrigerant
Propane
/ R-290
A 3 3 R-290 (100) -42.1 0.95
Isobutane
/ R-600a
A 3 3 R-600a (100) -11.7 0.35
CO2
/ R-744
A 1 1 R-744 (100) -78.5 6.43
Ammonia
/ R-717
B 2L <1 R-717 (100) -33.3 1.00
*1
Based on ISO817, ASHRAE34.
*2
GWP 100-year values are based on the Fourth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 4th AR). The GWP values of other refrigerants which are not listed in the IPCC 4th AR are obtained from IPCC 5th AR.
*3
Properties are generated by using NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) REFPROP ver 10. Saturated temperature is at atmospheric pressure. Blend refrigerant table has Bubble Point (BP)/Dew Point (DP) for Saturated Temperature and Liquid/Vapor saturated pressure.

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