Daikin has assessed various refrigerants (R-32, blends, natural refrigerants, HFOs, etc.) based on four criteria (overall environmental impact, energy efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness), and we have utilized many of these refrigerants in selected applications. ,sunyleonsex
fake taxi.,After examining its key properties, Daikin has concluded that R-32 is a better refrigerant than others for direct expansion type cooling and heating equipment including single package products. We have been launching R-32 products into the worldwide market in many regions.
fake taxi.,The potential refrigerating effect of R-32 is 1.5 times that of R-22 or R-410A. The cooling seasonal performance factor (CSPF) of R-32 is higher than conventional refrigerants. Its peak power consumption is also lower, helping to alleviate power shortages in large cities during periods of high demand.
sexy. videos,International Standard ISO 817:2014 segregates the flammability of refrigerants into 4 categories as follows: Class 1 (No flame propagation), Class 2L (Lower flammability), Class 2 (Flammable) and Class 3 (Higher flammability). Class 2L refrigerants present the lowest risk of the 3 flammable categories and are defined by having a burning velocity of less than 10 cm per second. The characteristic of this low burning velocity is that the flame front does not propagate readily in a horizontal direction. This is because the convection rise due to combustion creates a higher velocity than the burning velocity. This effectively means that a Class 2L refrigerant is not explosive if ignited because the flame only propagates in an upwards direction from the ignition point and not rapidly outwards in all directions. We have done actual as well as theoretical risk assessments using refrigerant in equipment to confirm safety.
|Flammability||Low Toxicity A||High Toxicity B|
|Class 3||Higher flammability||A3||Propane, Isobutane, Others||B3||n/a|
|Class 2||Flammable||A2||R-152a||B2||R-40, R-611|
|Class 2L||Lower flammability||A2L||R-32(675), R-1234yf(4), R-1234ze(E)(6), Others||B2L||Ammonia|
|Class 1||No flame propagation||A1||R-410A(2090), R-134a(1430), R-407C(1770), Others||B1||R-123, R-245fa|
A2L and B2L are lower flammability refrigerants with a maximum burning velocity ≤ 10 cm/s (3.9 in./s)
GWP value is indicated in parenthesis based on IPCC 4th AR.
Safety Group Classification is indicated in parentheses.
Source: Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association (JRAIA)
Risk Assessment of Mildly Flammable Refrigerants 2013 Progress Report, April 2014, The Japan Society of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers
|Classification||Class 3||Class 2||Class 2L|
|Burning velocity||39 cm/sec||23 cm/sec||6.7 cm/sec||7.2 cm/sec|
|Heat of combustion||46 MJ/kg||16 MJ/kg||9 MJ/kg||19 MJ/kg|
2L refrigerants do not horizontally propagate due to their slow burning velocity. Additionally, heat of the combustion of R-32 is low and the range of any impact by its flame is limited.
Note: GWP values are based on the Fourth Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 4th AR).
A. Approximately 160 million units of R-32 air conditioners are on the market in the world*1, achieving the reduction of approximately 260 million tons of CO2*2.
Daikin was the first to introduce air-conditioning and heat pump technology utilizing the refrigerant R-32, starting in Japan in November 2012. As of June 2021, we have sold approximately 33 million units in more than 100 countries and regions. Together with other manufactures, approximately 160 million units of R-32 equipment are estimated to have been sold globally*1. If all presently used R-410A refrigerant were replaced by R-32, the total CO2 equivalent impact of HFCs could be reduced by up to approximately 800 million tons-CO2 compared to business as usual scenarios, along with a significantly reduced amount of indirect CO2 emissions due to lower energy consumption. This is the equivalent of 50% of the annual carbon absorption provided by the Amazon rain forest. We will continue to challenge ourselves in the technical development of R-32 technology, and contribute to standard making to expand range of our products using R-32.